A new look at the “vital signs” of Earth’s climate reveals a stark picture of declining health. As global temperatures rise, so do sea level and the amount of heat trapped in the ocean’s upper layers. Meanwhile, mountain glaciers and Arctic sea ice are melting away beneath an atmosphere where concentrations of three key planet-warming greenhouse gases continue to rise.“Data show that the climate is changing more rapidly now than it has at any time in the historical record,” says Thomas Karl, director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina. “The numbers speak for themselves.”The numbers speak pretty loudly, too. Depending on which data set scientists look at, 2013 falls somewhere between the second warmest and sixth warmest year since record keeping began in 1880. Global sea level reached a new record high last year—about 3.8 centimeters (1.5 inches) above the average measured by satellites between 1993 and 2010. Overall, sea level is rising about 3 millimeters (one-eighth of an inch) each year. And for the 23rd straight year, mountain glaciers on the whole lost more ice than they gained, says Jessica Blunden of ERT Inc., who works with Karl at the climate monitoring agency in Asheville. “Changes in these [glaciers] are visible and obvious signs of climate change,” Blunden says.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The new study, State of the Climate in 2013, was released online today in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. The detailed, peer-reviewed analysis was based on data from environmental monitoring stations on land, sea, and ice and from sensors on satellites and planes. More than 400 scientists from 57 countries contributed to the report. (Previous State of the Climate reports, issued annually since 1991, can be found here.)Increases in the levels of three key greenhouse gases are likely to be the root of recent warming, scientists suggest. The global average concentration of carbon dioxide reached more than 395 parts per million last year, a 2.8 ppm increase over 2012 levels, according to the new report. Levels of both methane and nitrous oxide (N2O), which on a pound-for-pound basis trap heat more effectively than CO2, rose last year about 0.3%. (Nevertheless, about two-thirds of the atmosphere’s heat-trapping power comes from CO2, which is much more prevalent than the other two gases, the researchers report. Carbon dioxide levels are now in uncharted territory, the scientists say: Ice core records reveal that until the early 20th century, CO2 concentrations hadn’t risen above 300 ppm during the previous 800,000 years.)From pole to pole, few parts of the globe are being spared warm-up. In the Eurasian Arctic, average temperatures last summer ranged between 1°C and 3°C warmer than the average temperatures there from 2007 through 2012. Fairbanks, Alaska, had a record number of days (36) in which the daily high temperature reached 27°C (80°F) or higher. All that warmth is seeping into the ground, too. Permafrost temperatures measured 20 meters below ground at many sites in Alaska reached record highs last year, the scientists report. And 2013’s Arctic sea ice coverage in September, the month it usually falls to its lowest for the year, was 18% below the average coverage for that month from 1981 through 2010. Although not a record low amount, the scientists note that September sea ice coverage is declining almost 14% per decade since satellites started measuring sea ice extent in 1979.At the other end of Earth, 2013’s average annual temperature at the South Pole was –47.4°C (–53.3°F): chilly, yes, but nevertheless a record high since scientists started collecting weather data there in 1957.In between, China, Japan, and South Korea suffered their warmest summer on record, and Australia really suffered: With large swaths of the Land Down Under tallying summertime highs above 45°C (113°F), Australia had its warmest year since record keeping began in 1910.The amount of heat stored in the upper 700 meters of the world’s oceans, which has increased substantially over the past 2 decades, also reached a record level last year. That increased heat content helps boost the strength of typhoons and hurricanes, Karl suggests. In the next couple of months, he notes, NOAA will release a report that discusses how climate change might be related to several episodes of extreme weather last year.
TEMPE, Ariz. — It’s fair to say Carson Palmer has not had the kind of season anyone was hoping for, at least in comparison to the MVP-caliber campaign he put together in 2015.But he hasn’t been terrible, as his 61.3 percent completion percentage, 3,231 yards, 18 touchdowns and 11 interceptions represent.Interestingly, Palmer is actually throwing for more yards per game this season than last, and over his last three games, the veteran has thrown seven touchdown passes against just three interceptions. 0 Comments Share What’s changed for the 36-year-old the last few weeks?“The guys around him are all playing better,” Cardinals coach Bruce Arians said. “And we haven’t had to play from way behind and that’s always when you’re bang, bang, bang, throwing, throwing, throwing, you’re going to throw some interceptions.“But he’s been, for three quarters in most games, he’s been spot on.”Truth be told, outside of a four-interception performance in Buffalo in Week 3 — a game in which all four picks happened in the fourth quarter while the Cardinals were down two touchdowns — Palmer has not really had any terrible games. He has not thrown an interception in five games this season, and has tossed at least two touchdown passes in six outings.Again, not what he did last season, but not awful.“I don’t know, we’ve played well as a group this last week,” Palmer said of why he’s been better. “We weren’t in a situation where we were throwing it the entire second half and down by multiple scores.“And, I think really focused on trying to get the ball out as quick as possible and get it to guys like Dave (Johnson) and let him — there might be somebody open further down the field, but getting the ball out quick and not putting us at risk and giving Dave a chance to get the ball down the field.” Derrick Hall satisfied with D-backs’ buying and selling Palmer has missed just one game this season, in Week 5 due to a concussion. To him, standing tall in the pocket and withstanding some punishment comes with the territory.“I think every quarterback has something that makes him different from the others,” he said. “I don’t have the 4.3 speed to take off and run and create with my legs, I guess. I’ve always felt one of my strengths was being able to take hits and stay in the pocket and throw it, and it’s something that has gotten me this far and I need to continue to get better at it and be more on platform and more on balance and push through throws more often, because it’s not where it needs to be. I need to continue to get better at it.”Injury updateThe week’s first injury report can be found here, and for the Cardinals, receivers John Brown and Larry Fitzgerald as well as linebacker Markus Golden, safety Tyrann Mathieu, quarterback Carson Palmer, defensive lineman Frostee Rucker and cornerback Tharold Simon did not practice Wednesday.Arians said they will increase Brown’s reps Thursday and then again Friday, following the same pattern they used last week. For Fitzgerald, Palmer and Rucker, it was a scheduled day off for “old guys,” as the coach put it. Top Stories There no doubt has been an adjustment period that has come with the team’s offense moving more toward a David Johnson-centric style, though the change makes sense given just how dynamic a player the running back has proven to be.For Palmer, having that as well as an i nconsistent group of receivers and an offensive line struggling to protect gives ample reason to adjust his game. Instead of constantly looking for the deep ball, which requires him to hang onto it longer and hope one of his receivers will make a play, he is more apt to quickly get rid of it to his running back.Johnson then gets to do what he does best, in making a play, whereas Palmer more often than not avoids taking an unnecessary hit.Palmer has been sacked 34 times this season — tied for second behind Andrew Luck, who has been dropped 36 times — and has been hit countless others.Incidentally, that he has played better over his last three games — including a pair of losses to Minnesota and Atlanta, both games where he took more than his fair share of hits — is something one would not necessarily expect from a quarterback who is approaching his 37th birthday.“He’s tough as nails,” Arians said. “You see guys get happy feet, but he’s rock solid in that regard.” The 5: Takeaways from the Coyotes’ introduction of Alex Meruelo Former Cardinals kicker Phil Dawson retires Arians, who said the team will not have two punters active in a game, said it’s not easy to just teach someone the job.“There is a knack to it,” he said. “You have to learn how to spin the laces. First of all, you have to have good hands, soft hands, and then you have to be able to spin the laces and make sure the angle of the ball is exactly right every time.”Can Wile figure it out in time for the Cardinals to feel comfortable with him Sunday in Miami? He will be getting a crash course in holding the rest of the week, though Arians did not sound optimistic that a player could learn how to hold in just a few days.“If he’s done it. Now if he hasn’t done it, it’s going to be real hard to do,” the coach said. “(Ryan) Quigley came in and he had done it. Chandler was very comfortable with what he had to do.”Follow Adam Green on Twitter As for Mathieu, however, the shoulder injury that has kept him out of three of the last four games is still an issue, and Arians is not sure if his player will be back soon.“Your guess is as good as mine,” he said. “Range of motion is a little bit of a problem right now, but the strength is coming back.”But, Arians said, Mathieu still having problems with the shoulder is a surprise.Kicking is great, but can he hold?On Tuesday, the Cardinals added punter Matt Wile to their practice squad.The 24-year-old has appeared in just one NFL game — a few weeks ago for the Falcons against the Cardinals — where he averaged 58 yards on two punts.He was brought in to compete with Drew Butler, who has struggled with inconsistency this season and in last Sunday’s win over Washington had one punt go just 28 yards, but even if Wile is a superior kicker, that does not mean the job will be his going forward.“He never held, so we’ll start working with him as a holder and see what he can do, see if he can get in the mix,” Arians said.For all of Butler’s struggles, Cardinals coaches have maintained he does a lot of things that do not necessarily show up on the box score or during the game. A strength of his is apparently holding for kicker Chandler Catanzaro, and the last thing the Cardinals want to do is have a problem with a hold hurt them during a big kick. Arizona Cardinals quarterback Carson Palmer (3) throws under pressure by Washington Redskins defensive end Trent Murphy (93) during the second half of an NFL football game, Sunday, Dec. 4, 2016, in Glendale, Ariz. (AP Photo/Ross D. Franklin) Grace expects Greinke trade to have emotional impact