Go Back To School At The FCPA Institute – Indianapolis Sept 2829

first_imgLearning a new topic or elevating your knowledge and practical skills in a topic is not just for formal students in formal educational settings. Professionals in the workplace can also benefit from back to “school” moments.For professionals in the FCPA space – or wishing to join the FCPA space – the FCPA Institute serves this objective and the next FCPA Institute will take place in Indianapolis on September 28-29, 2017.At a typical FCPA conference, 40-50 individuals bombard you with information during various panels. Just introducing these countless individuals takes over one hour in the aggregate. Moreover, the 3 p.m. panelists were likely not present for the 10 a.m. panel, thus information is presented in a disjointed and largely repetitive fashion.The FCPA Institute is different than a typical FCPA conference. At the FCPA Institute, information is presented in an integrated and cohesive manner by an expert instructor with FCPA practice and teaching experience.Moreover, the FCPA Institute promotes active learning by participants through issue-spotting video exercises, skills exercises, small-group discussions, and the sharing of real-world practices and experiences. To best facilitate the unique learning experience that the FCPA Institute represents, attendance at each FCPA Institute is capped at 25 participants.In short, the FCPA Institute elevates the FCPA learning experience for a diverse group of professionals and is offered as a refreshing and cost-effective alternative to a typical FCPA conference. The goal of the FCPA Institute is simple: to develop and enhance fundamental skills relevant to the FCPA, FCPA enforcement, and FCPA compliance best practices in a stimulating and professional environment with a focus on learning.The FCPA Institute presents the FCPA not merely as a legal issue, but also as a business, finance, accounting, and auditing issue. The FCPA Institute is thus ideal for a diverse group of professionals such as in-house and outside counsel; compliance professionals; finance, accounting, and auditing professionals; and others seeking sophisticated knowledge and enhanced skills relevant to the FCPA.Set forth below is what prior FCPA Institute “graduates” have said about their experience.“Unlike other FCPA conferences where one leaves with a spinning head and unanswered questions, I left the FCPA Institute with a firm understanding of the nuts and bolts of the FCPA, the ability to spot issues, and knowledge of where resources can be found that offer guidance in resolving an issue. The limited class size of the FCPA Institute ensured that all questions were answered and the interactive discussion among other compliance professionals was fantastic.”  ( Rob Foster, In-House Counsel, Oil and Gas Company)“The FCPA Institute was one of the best professional development investments of time and money that I have made since law school. The combination of black letter law and practical insight was invaluable. I would highly recommend the FCPA Institute to any professional who has compliance, ethics, legal or international business responsibilities.” ( Norm Keith, Partner, Fasken Martineau, Toronto).“The FCPA Institute is very different than other FCPA conferences I have attended. It was interactive, engaging, thought-provoking and at the completion of the Institute I left feeling like I had really learned something new and useful for my job. The FCPA Institute is a must-attend for all compliance folks (in-house or external).” (Robert Wieck, CPA, CIA, CFE, Forensic Audit Senior Manager, Oracle Corporation)“The FCPA Institute is a top-flight conference that offers an insightful, comprehensive review of the FCPA enforcement landscape. Professor Koehler’s focus on developing practical skills in an intimate setting really sets it apart from other FCPA conferences. One of the best features of the FCPA Institute is its diversity of participants and the ability to learn alongside in-house counsel, company executives and finance professionals. ( Blair Albom, Associate, Debevoise & Plimpton)“The FCPA Institute was a professionally enriching experience and substantially increased my understanding of the FCPA and its enforcement. Professor Koehler’s extensive insight and practical experience lends a unique view to analyzing enforcement actions and learning compliance best practices. I highly recommend the FCPA Institute to practitioners from all career stages.” ( Sherbir Panag, MZM Legal, Mumbia, India)“The FCPA Institute provided an in-depth look into the various forces that have shaped, and that are shaping, FCPA enforcement. The diverse group of participants provided unique insight into how, at a practical level, various professionals evaluate risk and deal with FCPA issues on a day-to-day basis. The small group setting, the interactive nature of the event, and the skills assessment test all set the FCPA Institute apart from other FCPA conferences or panel-based events.” ( John Turlais, Senior Counsel, Foley & Lardner)FCPA Institute participants not only gain knowledge, practical skills and peer insight, but can also elect to have their knowledge assessed to earn a certificate of completion upon passing a written assessment tool. In this way, successful completion of the FCPA Institute represents a value-added credential for professional development. In addition, attorneys who complete the FCPA Institute are eligible to receive Continuing Legal Education (“CLE”) credits and prior FCPA Institute participants have also received continuing education units from the Society of Corporate Compliance and Ethics.To learn more about the FCPA Institute and to register for the Indianapolis event, click here.last_img read more

This Week On FCPA Professor

first_imgFCPA Professor has been described as “the Wall Street Journal concerning all things FCPA-related,” and “the most authoritative source for those seeking to understand and apply the FCPA.”Set forth below are the topics discussed this week on FCPA Professor.As highlighted in this post, in a statutory interpretation case that was very similar to the statutory interpretation issues in the “foreign official” challenge, the Supreme Court reminded us that the law means what actual words in a specific statute say (not what other similar statutes may say) and not what the SEC interprets words in a statute to mean.While certain commentators may think otherwise, this post highlights that bribery and corruption allegations are frequently used as the basis for civil litigation and it would be nice if commentators engaged in a bit of research before hitting the publish button and polluting the internet with false and misleading information.This post once again reboots a long-standing FCPA proposal, this time in the aftermath of a recent disclosure by Teradata. The proposal is this: when a company voluntarily discloses an FCPA internal investigation to the DOJ and/or SEC and when one or both of the enforcement agencies do not bring an enforcement action, have the enforcement agency publicly state, in a thorough and transparent manner, the facts the company disclosed and why the enforcement agency did not bring an enforcement action based on those facts.News flash – Canadian businesses prefer less harsh criminal sanctions and other observations relevant to Canada’s movement towards DPAs. (See here).This time of year is heavy on annual reports and other corporate disclosures and this post rounds up various scrutiny alerts and updates.How much do you know about the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act? Let’s find out in this week’s FCPA challenge.Stay informed. Read FCPA Professor.To receive posts from the award-winning FCPA Professor website direct to your inbox, click here and go to the bottom left hand of the page to subscribe.Elevate your FCPA knowledge and practical skills at the FCPA Institute – Nashville on May 3-4. To learn more and to register, click here.last_img read more

Canadian Court Finds That Bribery Is A Specific Intent Offense And That

first_imgThis 2014 post highlighted Canadian charges against Robert Barra and Shailesh Govindia (individuals previously associated with Cryptometrics) for bribing Indian officials including those associated with Air India.As highlighted in the below post, a Canadian court recently concluded that violations under Canada’s FCPA-like law – the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (CFPOA) – are a specific intent offense and that Barra did not know the individual he allegedly bribed was a “foreign public official.”As further highlighted below, the Canadian court’s specific intent ruling conflicts with certain FCPA jurisprudence while the Canadian court’s ruling regarding knowledge of the status of a “foreign public official” ruling is consistent with certain U.S. jurisprudence – namely U.S. v. Carson – in which the court issued a “knowledge of status of foreign official” jury instruction prior to trial. (See here).The court framed the intent and knowledge of the status of the “foreign public official” issues as follows and concluded:“Issue #3 Has the Crown proven beyond a reasonable doubt that Barra knew that the Captain or MAD were Foreign Public Officials? Bribery is a specific intent offence and I find that the offence under s. 3(1) of the CFPOA is also a specific intent offence.In Rex v. Smith (1921), 67 D.L.R. 273 (Ont. C.A.) at p. 275, the Court of Appeal dismissed the charge of bribery of a peace officer and held that the mens rea required that the accused must know that the person receiving the bribe was a peace officer. The Court of Appeal stated the following at p. 275: “Knowledge by the accused of the official character of the person to whom the bribe is offered is an essential element of the bribery.”The evidence does not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that Barra or Berini knew that Captain Macarenhas or MMD or any of the other employees of Air India who received bribes were foreign public officials as defined in the Act. Mr. Bell and Mr. Berini both testified that they believed that the Captain and MMD were employees of Air India which they believed was a Crown Corporation. They were not aware that these employees of Air India were foreign public officials. This was a reasonable inference to make in the circumstances. Air India is not a Crown Corporation and is owned directly by the Indian government, which made the Captain and MMD foreign public officials as defined under the Act.Disposition of Issue #3 I therefore find that the Crown has failed to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that Mr. Barra had the required mens rea to agree to give a benefit, namely a bribe, to Captain Macarenhas and the other Air India employees, in order to guarantee that the Cryptometrics bid would be down-selected, because he was not aware that they were foreign public officials as defined under the Act.”For additional coverage of the Canadian decision, see here.Regarding whether the FCPA is a specific intent offense as applied to individuals, legislative history instructs as follows. In terms of “willfully,” a House Report stated:“The bill [states that a person] must be found to have violated the law ‘knowingly and willfully.’ Consistent with the often-reiterated holdings of the courts that have interpreted a similar standard in the few places it is included in the federal securities laws, the knowledge required is merely that a defendant be aware that he is committing the act which constitutes the violation – not that he knows his conduct is illegal or has any specific intent to violate the law. […] Indeed, even in the criminal context, neither knowledge of the law violated nor the intention to act in violation of the law is generally necessary for conviction, and the Committee does not intend that either be required here in either civil or criminal proceedings.” (See H.R. Rep. No. 95-640 (1977).Although not an actual FCPA enforcement action, Stichting v. Schreiber (327 F.3d 173 (2d Cir. 2003) – a civil malpractice case alleging erroneous legal advice by counsel regarding payments to a Panamanian official that caused the entity to violate the FCPA) is instructive on the corrupt intent element of the FCPA’s anti-bribery provisions. In the case, an appellate court analyzed whether a company, in pleading guilty to FCPA anti-bribery violations, acknowledged acting with intent thus undermining its claims that the erroneous legal advice was the basis for its legal exposure. The court stated:“Knowledge by a defendant that it is violating the FCPA – that it is committing all the elements of an FCPA violation – is not itself an element of the FCPA crime.  Federal statutes in which the defendant’s knowledge that he or she is violating the statute is an element of the violation are rare; the FCPA is plainly not such a statute.”The court also stated that “corruptly” as used in the FCPA:“[S]ignifies, in addition to the element of ‘general intent’ present in most criminal statutes, a bad or wrongful purpose and an intent to influence a foreign official to misuse his official position.  But there is nothing in that word or anything else in the FCPA that indicates that the government must establish that the defendant in fact knew that his conduct violated the FCPA to be guilty of such a violation.”FCPA mens rea issues were also the focus of an appellate decision in U.S. v. Kay (513 F.3d 432 (5th Cir. 2007)). After a jury convicted the defendants of FCPA anti-bribery violations an appeal followed in which the defendants argued, among other things, that the trial court failed to adequately instruct the jury on mens rea issues.As stated by the appellate court:“The [district] court’s instructions to the jury indicated that ‘corruptly’ was an element of the offense and defined a corrupt act as one that is ‘done voluntarily and intentionally, and with a bad purpose or evil motive of accomplishing either an unlawful end or result, or a lawful end or result by some unlawful method or means.’ The [district] court also instructed the jury on the definition of an act done ‘knowingly’ (thus incorporating the willfulness element into its instructions) and defined a knowing act as one ‘done voluntarily and intentionally, not because of accident or mistake.’”The appellate court concluded:“The FCPA does not define ‘willfully,’ and we therefore look to the common law interpretation of this term to determine the sufficiency of the jury instructions pertaining to the mens rea element. The definition of ‘willful’ in the criminal context remains unclear despite numerous opinions addressing this issue. Three levels of interpretation have arisen that help to clear the haze. Under all three, a defendant must have acted intentionally—not by accident or mistake. The first and most basic interpretation of criminal willfulness is that committing an act, and having knowledge of that act, is criminal willfulness—provided that the actions fell within the category of actions defined as illegal under the applicable statute. In these cases, the defendant need not have known of the specific terms of the statute or even the existence of the statute. The defendant’s knowledge that he committed the act is sufficient.The second and ‘intermediate’ level of criminal willfulness requires the defendant to have known that his actions were in some way unlawful.  Again, he need not have known of the specific statute, but rather he must have acted with the knowledge that he was doing a ‘bad’ act under the general rules of law. Under this intermediate level of criminal common law willfulness, ‘the Government must prove that the defendant acted with knowledge that his conduct was unlawful.’The strictest level of interpretation of criminal willfulness requires that the defendant knew the terms of the statute and that he was violating the statute. The courts have reserved this category to limited types of statutory violations involving ‘complex’ statutes—namely those governing federal tax law and antistructuring transactions. Although [this court] has not addressed the FCPA under this category, [the Schreiber case discussed above] has determined that the FCPA does not fall within this narrow category of complex statutes, and we agree.The district court’s jury instructions captured both the first and second levels of criminal willfulness […] We find the instructions sufficient, since the strictest interpretation of criminal willfulness is reserved for complex statutes. Under the first and broadest definition of criminal willfulness, the term ‘knowingly’ in the context of willful criminal action ‘merely requires proof of knowledge of the facts that constitute the offense.’ […]The district court, by instructing the jury that a guilty verdict required a finding that defendant acted ‘voluntarily and intentionally, and with a bad purpose or evil motive of accomplishing either an unlawful end or result,’ and by including a separate ‘knowing’ instruction, correctly indicated that the jury must identify evidence amounting to ‘knowledge of facts that constitute the offense’ required by the traditional criminal definition of willfulness (which we have described as the first category of willfulness). The court’s instructions also substantially covered the requested instruction that Defendants acted ‘corruptly,’ meaning they acted ‘knowingly and dishonestly, with the specific intent to achieve an unlawful result by influencing a foreign public official’s action in one’s own favor.’ The instructions suggested that illegal conduct under the FCPA defined the ‘unlawful end or result’ to which the court referred, since the jury had to have some standard by which to gauge lawfulness. Additionally, the instructions correctly indicated that to be guilty under the Act, Defendants must have knowingly (i.e., voluntarily and intentionally) acted with awareness of these unlawful ends.[…]We find that the district court’s jury instructions also capture our second, or intermediate, definition of criminal willfulness—a definition that we commonly follow – that a defendant knew that he was doing something generally ‘unlawful’ at the time of his action. This level of interpretation is stricter than the first because it does not only require that the defendant knew that he was committing an act (an act which, incidentally, falls within the definition of the relevant statute); the defendant must have known that the act was in some way wrong. The district court’s jury instructions captured this level of intent well with their requirement that the jury find that Defendants acted ‘with a bad purpose or evil motive.’[…]The instructions’ requirements that Defendants acted corruptly, with an ‘unlawful end or result,’ and committed ‘intentional’ and ‘knowing’ acts with a bad motive sufficiently captured the definition of criminal willfulness that we follow. They also allowed Defendants to effectively put forth adequate defenses: Defendants could have argued lack of intent and that they were not acting with knowledge of unlawful means or ends. The district court’s jury instructions adequately conveyed the ‘willfulness’ required for a conviction under the FCPA.”The Canadian court’s knowledge of the status of a “foreign public official” ruling is consistent with certain U.S. jurisprudence – namely U.S. v. Carson – in which the court issued a “knowledge of status of foreign official” jury instruction prior to trial.In the enforcement action, various former employees of valve manufacturer Control Components Inc. were criminally charged with FCPA violations in connection with alleged payments to employees at alleged SOEs in China, Malaysia, and the United Arab Emirates. After the court denied the defendants’ motion to dismiss challenging the government’s “foreign official” enforcement theory in a manner similar to Esquenazi, the disputed “foreign official” issue moved to the jury instructions and the judge issued a jury instruction titled “knowledge of status of foreign official” which stated, in pertinent part:“(4) The defendant offered, paid, promised to pay, or authorized the payment of money, or offered, gave, promised to give, or authorized the giving of anything of value to a foreign official;(5) The payment or gift at issue in element 4 was to (a) a person the defendant knew or believed was a foreign official or (b) any person and the defendant knew that all or a portion of such money or thing of value would be offered, given, or promised (directly or indirectly) to a person the defendant knew or believed to be a foreign official. Belief that an individual was a foreign official does not satisfy this element if the individual was not in fact a foreign official.” (See Order Re: Select Jury Instructions, U.S. v. Carson , No. SACR 09-0007-JVS (C.D. Cal. Feb. 16, 2012).As highlighted in this prior post, after this jury instruction and the government’s apparent inability to offer proof, the defendants agreed to settle on substantially reduced charges. FCPA Institute – Boston (Oct. 3-4) A unique two-day learning experience ideal for a diverse group of professionals seeking to elevate their FCPA knowledge and practical skills through active learning. Learn more, spend less. CLE credit is available. Learn More & Registerlast_img read more

Thanks volcanoes Earth cooler than expected due to recent eruptions

first_imgMinor volcanic eruptions substantially slowed Earth’s warming between 2000 and 2013, a new study suggests. The small particles, or aerosols, were spewed high into the atmosphere and scattered sunlight back into space, preventing the global average temperature from rising from 0.05°C to 0.12°C. That cooling effect represents between 25% and 50% of the expected temperature rise during that period because of rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, the scientists say, so the finding helps explain the so-called hiatus in global warming over the last 15 years.“This is an important paper,” says Brian Toon, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The team’s results “help us understand why Earth didn’t warm as much as expected by climate models in the past decade or so.”Scientists have long known of the cooling effect of major volcanic eruptions, which spew large amounts of light-scattering aerosols into the stratosphere. The Philippines’ Mount Pinatubo, for example, cooled Earth by a few tenths of a degree Celsius for months after it blew its top in June 1991. But the chilling effect of minor eruptions has been hotly debated, says David Ridley, an atmospheric scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. That’s because scientists have presumed that most of the aerosols from minor eruptions do not rise beyond the troposphere, the layer of Earth’s atmosphere where weather occurs and where natural processes quickly clear particles from the atmosphere. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country As a result, scientists typically ignore satellite data for altitudes lower than 15 kilometers, Ridley says. That’s because the individual droplets or ice particles in clouds (which are, after all, aerosols themselves) in those layers of the atmosphere can confuse the tally, he notes. In the tropics, the boundary between the stratosphere and the troposphere is about 15 kilometers. But in temperate and polar regions, the boundary can be as low as 10 kilometers, Ridley says. That leaves a gap as much as 5 km thick in the lower stratosphere where climate-cooling aerosols can persist, yet not show up, in satellite data.So, Ridley and his colleagues scoured data from other sources. Some came from ground-based lasers that probed the atmosphere from four sites in the Northern Hemisphere. By measuring the amount of laser light reflected back to Earth, the researchers could estimate the concentrations of aerosols at various altitudes. Data gathered by high-flying balloons and satellites helped provide crosschecks on the laser measurements. Also, a worldwide network of sensors measured the total amount of sunlight reaching the ground, which gave the scientists a sense of how much radiation was being scattered back into space by atmospheric aerosols at all levels.The team’s analysis reveals that the lower stratosphere indeed contains many untallied aerosols from minor eruptions. Data gathered at a site near Tsukuba, Japan, show that about a third of stratospheric aerosols—much of them from small volcanoes—sit below 15 kilometers. A site near Tomsk, Russia, found that, on average, about half of the stratospheric aerosols resided below 15 kilometers, the researchers will report in a forthcoming issue of Geophysical Research Letters. In these lower layers of the stratosphere, aerosol concentrations rose after known volcanic eruptions and then dropped off, Ridley says.“What they’ve found makes sense, and it’s important to quantify,” says Alan Robock, a climate scientist at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The better scientists can pin down natural influences on climate, he says, the better they can understand the impact of human activities.Yet the cooling effect of these minor eruptions does not completely account for the global warming hiatus in which the rise in Earth’s average temperature has slowed since the late 1990s, Toon says. Scientists increasingly believe that most of the rest of the missing heat has gone into deep ocean waters. Another source of cooling is suspected to be aerosols from industry in East Asia.In any case, Robock suggests, scientists should develop new sets of sensors or analytical techniques to measure stratospheric aerosols. Whereas some of those instruments could be space-based, others could be borne by high-flying balloons. The latter type of sensors, Robock notes, could directly measure the size distribution of aerosols, which could help researchers better model their effects on climate. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwecenter_img Click to view the privacy policy. 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EU Commission wants to divert Horizon 2020 money into new investment fund

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Money from the new investment pot could go to any E.U. country and to any project that matches the plan’s priorities. The commission has issued few details but says it wants to focus broadly on broadband and energy networks, transport infrastructure, education, research and innovation, as well as renewable energy and energy efficiency. As an example, the commission says the money could help speed up the construction of a “laser-based research infrastructure.””I know some of you are worried about the impact on the research and infrastructure allocations. You fear that redirecting money from the Horizon 2020 and Connecting Europe budget lines will mean that money is lost,” Juncker told the Parliament yesterday. “But this is not the case. Every euro from these programs paid into the fund creates 15 euros for those very same research and infrastructure projects. We are not just moving money around, we are maximizing its input.”But some say that plan is too optimistic. “What can you do with €21 billion in an economy that amounts to over €12 trillion or more? [Juncker]’s trying to do a miracle with very little,” says Guntram Wolff, director of the economics think tank Bruegel in Brussels.Wolff doesn’t believe national and private funds will multiply the commission’s €21 billion by a factor of 15. “Maybe 5 if we’re lucky,” he says. The plan is likely to bolster projects that would have happened anyway in this short time frame, enabling investors to make higher profits instead of attracting actual new investment, Wolff says. To finance the scheme, it would be wiser to tap into other parts of the E.U. budget, such as funds for agriculture or regional development, instead of Horizon 2020, he adds.LERU says the new fund’s money is likely to go to “quick win projects that may please politicians and citizens but that will not invest in Europe’s future.” LERU’s secretary-general Kurt Deketelaere called the plan a “fairytale diversion” that would squeeze the Union’s research budget. “Let’s stick with the Horizon 2020 budget, which we all welcomed in 2012,” he said.It is still unclear which parts of the Horizon 2020 budget would suffer. “None of [Horizon’s] money [for that period] has been committed at this stage, so nobody can claim to be losing out,” says a commission representative. “On the contrary, everyone should mobilize to put forward really good projects.” Public bodies, companies, or nongovernmental organizations will be able to submit proposals, which will be vetted by an “investment committee,” the representative says.Juncker hopes to get the plan off the ground by mid-2015—but he will first have to win the approval of the Parliament and member states, which have to agree on the details of the future regulation.center_img The new boss of the European Commission has sparked criticism with plans to raid the European Union’s science budget to fodder a new investment fund aimed at boosting Europe’s sluggish economy and creating new jobs.In his first big move after about 3 weeks in office, Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker has proposed diverting €2.7 billion from Horizon 2020, the bloc’s €70 billion, 7-year research funding program, into a new “Investment Plan for Europe.” Combined with money from the Connecting Europe Facility, which funds broadband and transport projects, from the European Investment Bank, and from unspecified “budget margins,” the fund would put €21 billion on the table. Juncker says this could attract 15 times that amount from industry and national governments, to reach €315 billion in the next 3 years.Some research organizations aren’t convinced that the €2.7 billion cut from Horizon 2020 will eventually benefit research, as Juncker claimed yesterday when he presented the plan to the European Parliament in Strasbourg, France. “Horizon 2020 is not a lemon! Stop squeezing it!” said the League of European Research Universities (LERU) in a statement issued yesterday. Emaillast_img read more

Nomadic herders left a strong genetic mark on Europeans and Asians

first_img Bronze Age Yamnaya ornaments and spearheads from the Hermitage Museum collections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country The Bronze Age came to Europe and Asia 5000 years ago, leaving a trail of metal tools, axes, and jewelry that stretches from Siberia to Scandinavia. But was this powerful new technology an idea that spread from the Middle East to European and Asian people, or was it brought in by foreigners? Two of the largest studies of ancient DNA from Bronze Age and Iron Age people have now found that outsiders deserve the credit: Nomadic herders from the steppes of today’s Russia and Ukraine brought their culture and, possibly, languages with them—and made a relatively recent and lasting imprint on the genetic makeup of Europeans and Asians.In the studies, published online today in Nature, two rival teams of geneticists analyzed the DNA from 170 individuals who lived at key archaeological sites in Europe and Asia 5000 to 3000 years ago. Both teams found strong evidence that a wave of nomadic herders known as the Yamnaya from the Pontic-Caspian, a vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea and as far east as the Caspian Sea, swept into Europe sometime between 5000 and 4800 years ago; along the way, they may have brought with them Proto-Indo-European, the mysterious ancestral tongue from which all of today’s 400 Indo-European languages spring. These herders interbred with local farmers and created the Corded Ware culture of central Europe, named for the twisted cord imprint on its pottery. Their genes were passed down to northern and central Europeans living today, as one of the teams posted on a preprint server earlier this year and published today.But in a new twist, one of the studies also found that the Yamnaya headed east from their homeland in the Eurasian steppelands, moving all the way to the Altai Mountains of Siberia, where they replaced local hunter-gatherers. This means that this distinctive culture of pastoralists, who had ox-driven wagons with wheels and whose warriors rode horses, dominated much of Eurasia, from north-central Europe to central Siberia and northern Mongolia. They persisted there until as recently as 2000 years ago. “Now we see the Yamnaya is not only spreading north into Europe; they’re also spreading east, crossing the Urals, getting all the way into central Asia, all the way into the Altai, between Mongolia, China, and Siberia,” says evolutionary biologist Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen, author of one study. Archaeologists have long noticed connections between the steppe cultures such as the Yamnaya and Bronze Age people to the east, who lived in the Minusinsk Basin and the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia and Mongolia about 5500 to 4500 years ago. Like the steppe people, these eastern cultures, such as the Afanasievo of the Altai, buried their high-status people in a supine flexed position, covered in ochre with animal remains in their graves, beneath mounds (or stone kurgans in the steppe). They also made pointed-based pots, censers (circular bowls on legs), and were among the first people to drive carts with wheels and tame horses. All of these traits also link them to people in central and eastern Europe, including the Yamnaya and Corded Ware people, who are thought to have spoken early Indo-European languages. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Evgeny Genkin In one of the new studies, Willerslev’s international team sequenced the genomes of 101 ancient people from across Europe. They found that the Yamnaya of the Samara Valley in the northern steppe of Russia were genetically indistinguishable from the Afanasievo of the Altai in the Yenesey region of southern Siberia, which confirms archaeologists’ suggestions that there was a vast migration of steppe pastoralists to the east. But unlike in Europe where the Yamnaya interbred with local farmers, the Yamnaya moving east completely replaced the local hunter-gatherers—perhaps because this region was only sparsely populated, Willerslev says.This eastern branch of the Yamnaya (or Afanasievo) persisted in central Asia and, perhaps, Mongolia and China until they themselves were replaced by fierce warriors in chariots called the Sintashta (also known as the Andronovo culture). These people from the Urals and Caucuses, who were genetically related to central Europeans, persisted in central Asia until 2000 years ago, which means that people in central Asia were actually more like Europeans than living Asians. It wasn’t until relatively recently—just 2000 years ago—that these “Caucasians” were replaced by immigrants from eastern Asia, such as the Karasuk, Mezhovskaya, and other Iron Age cultures that today make up the ancestry of people in central Asia.The implications of these genetic links between the Asian and European Bronze Age cultures are far-reaching: A few closely-linked groups from the steppe dominated a huge area from Europe to Asia and shaped major parts of the genetics of Europeans and Asians. “We now have samples all the way from Spain and the Atlantic Ocean to central Siberia,” says population geneticist Iosif Lazaridis of Harvard University and a co-author of the second study led by David Reich, also of Harvard. “The genetics of a lot of temperate Eurasia was completely unknown until a few years ago. Now it is almost completely known for this Bronze Age–Neolithic period.”Both studies found that these people brought genes for light skin and brown eyes with them, although northern hunter-gatherers already had light skin as well, Willerslev’s team found. In one surprising twist, it appears that even though the Yamnaya and these other Bronze Age cultures herded cattle, goats, and sheep, they couldn’t digest raw milk as adults. Lactose tolerance was still rare among Europeans and Asians at the end of the Bronze Age, just 2000 years ago. “The lack of lactose tolerance is very surprising, because most people would have assumed that the ability to drink raw milk that you see in present-day Europeans was selected for and fixed at least by the beginning of Bronze Age,” Willerslev says.This massive migration from the steppe also may have spread the Indo-European languages that have been spoken across Europe and in central and southern Asia since the beginning of recorded history, including Italic, Germanic, Slavic, Hindi, and Tocharian languages, among others. If the genetic affinities do mirror linguistic families, this would be strong evidence against a rival hypothesis that farmers from the Middle East spread early Indo-European languages.Although geneticists think the correlation is remarkably strong, the issue is far from resolved for linguists, who are following the new ancient DNA work closely. “There is a real sense that after more than 2 centuries of linguistics trying to solve the Indo-European question, it’s ancient DNA that is suddenly moving us fast toward a possible resolution,” says linguist Paul Heggarty of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. But it is not enough just to have data from northern Eurasia, where the Yamnaya’s movements may reflect only one part of the spread of Indo-European languages. Heggarty adds: “We need key data from the majority of the Indo-European-speaking world in the Mediterranean and south of the Black Sea-Caspian-Himalayas.” Other researchers say that the combined power of the two studies shows that it was people—not just pots or ideas—that spread the Bronze Age culture and genes. The studies “provide additional evidence for a mass migration at the end of the Neolithic from the Pontic steppe region into central Europe,” says paleogeneticist Johannes Krause of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany.last_img read more

What are these movie characters thinking Directors are increasingly expecting you to

first_img Email By Matthew HutsonMar. 9, 2018 , 3:45 PM An image of the actress Jennifer Garner’s face from this year’s Academy Awards ceremony became the reaction shot seen round the world, as people wondered what was behind her semihorrified expression. Similarly, people enjoy looking to characters’ silent reaction shots in movies as a way to decode what these individuals are thinking. And directors may be taking more advantage of such mind-reading tendencies, new research suggests.Psychologists analyzed 24 popular movies from 1940 to 2010 and found three patterns. First, shots of characters have become closer on average, going from directors framing them from the knees up to framing them from the waist or chest up. (The researchers don’t think the trend is purely the result of leaps in camera technology because it’s gradual.) Second, the proportion of conversations ending in a reaction shot—a silent response to a person or event—tripled, from about one in five to three in five. (1998’s Meet Joe Black, which was not among the sampled movies, ends one conversation with 12 back-to-back reaction shots.) Third, viewers rated the expressions in the conversation-ending reaction shots as slightly negative and slightly aroused (although the study didn’t find a trend over time). The characters appear to be suppressing the urge to speak, leaving audiences to wonder what’s left unsaid.Psychologists describe interest in another’s mental states, or thinking about thinking, as “theory of mind.” In this paper, to be published in Cognitive Science, the authors have a theory of theory of theory of mind (a theory cubed, if you will): They theorize that filmmakers are increasingly thinking about the audience’s theory of mind. And so movies offer viewers more chances to peer into those cryptic expressions and wonder what it means for the story. Encouraging mind-reading in fictional narratives does more than entertain us; some scholars believe it has advanced human rights by encouraging audiences to take on the perspectives of women and minorities. What are these movie characters thinking? Directors are increasingly expecting you to wonder Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwecenter_img *14 May, 5:34 p.m.: This story originally contained stills from several movies, but they have been removed due to permission issues. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)last_img read more

Top stories the gutbrain connection metawars and mosquitoes spreading microplastics

first_img(left to right): NICOLLE R. FULLER/SCIENCE SOURCE; CATE GILLON/GETTY IMAGES; PAUL STAROSTA/GETTY IMAGES Your gut is directly connected to your brain, by a newly discovered neuron circuitThe human gut is lined with more than 100 million nerve cells—it’s practically a brain unto itself. But a new study reveals the gut has a much more direct connection to the brain than previously thought: a neural circuit through the vagus nerve that allows it to transmit signals in mere seconds. The findings could lead to new treatments for obesity, eating disorders, and even depression and autism—all of which have been linked to a malfunctioning gut.Meta-analyses were supposed to end scientific debates. Often, they only cause more controversy The number of meta-analyses has exploded the past decade; some 11,000 were published in 2017. The studies, which extract and weigh data from a number of primary studies, have become widely accepted as a standardized, less biased way to answer scientific questions; they are sometimes called the “platinum standard” of evidence and guide thousands of treatment guidelines and social policies. But many meta-analyses aren’t the debate enders scientists hoped they would be, as researcher bias continues to creep in.Mosquitoes may be contaminating ecosystems with tiny bits of plasticAs mosquito larvae feed from pond water, they can draw tiny pieces of plastic into their mouths along with food particles. New research shows these “microplastics” stick around in the mosquitoes’ bellies as they transition to adulthood, putting their land predators like birds, bats, and dragonflies in danger of ingesting the contaminants.Remote solar observatory reopens after mysterious evacuationThe Sunspot Solar Observatory in New Mexico reopened on Monday after it was quickly and mysteriously evacuated on 6 September amid reports of a Federal Bureau of Investigation probe. The organization said it evacuated the site because of a concern that a suspect posed a threat to the safety of staff and residents, but it was reluctant to share news during the shutdown because it did not want to alert the suspect and impede the investigation.Drug combo shows promise for treating sleep apneaFor decades, scientists have searched in vain for drugs to defeat obstructive sleep apnea, the risky and increasingly prevalent condition in which a person’s upper airway repeatedly collapses during sleep, causing them to briefly stop breathing dozens or hundreds of times each night. Now, a new drug combination of atomoxetine and oxybutynin has reawakened hopes of treating sleep apnea with medication instead of the cumbersome breathing machines that saddle sufferers with a mask and headgear at night. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Email Top stories: the gut-brain connection, metawars, and mosquitoes spreading microplastics By Frankie SchembriSep. 21, 2018 , 2:30 PM Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwelast_img read more

Artist Creates Bronze Sculpture In Maleah Davis Honor

first_img Arkansas , Derion Vence , Houston , Maleah Davis , Maleah Davis Sculpture , Shirley Scarpetta , Texas I couldn’t get her out of my head for a while now. When this happens, I usually have an out of body experience and have to sculpt it. Her tragedy should not have happened. All those that have babies have a massive responsibility to protect, love, and nurture our babies. Her name was Maleah Davis, and she is free to fly with all of the other angels in heaven. . . #Maleahforever#Maleah#maleahdavis#memorial#clay#bronze#houston#localartist#loveourchildren#protectouryouth#restinpeace#rose#riseabove#shewillliveforever#texas#murdered#memorial#femalesculptor#sadnews#children#love#honor#sylvesterturner#ourhouston#houstonbaby#shirleyscarpetta#heavenlyangel There have been a few efforts made to memorialize Maleah. There are plans in the works to have the Red Lake Road overpass in Hempstead County named after her. Maleah went missing on April 30 and her remains were found on May 31 in Fulton, Arkansas. In the case, her mother’s fiancé Derion Vence was charged with tampering with a corpse but has evaded more serious charges.SEE ALSO:Here’s How Arkansas Wants To Honor Maleah DavisMedical Examiner Finds Maleah Davis Was Intentionally Killed As No One Is Charged With Her Murder AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to MoreAddThisMoreShare to EmailEmailEmail The artist—who is an award-winning self-taught bronze sculptor—was inclined to create the statue because she felt deeply impacted by the horrific turn of events that took place within the case. As a mother, she couldn’t even begin to imagine having something so tragic happen to her children and was extremely upset upon hearing that Maleah lost her life. Scarpetta says Maleah serves as a representation of children who were taken from this earth too soon and that violence against children must stop; that’s the message she wanted to convey through her artistry.“It’s for all of us. Our children are so vulnerable, and people need to be reminded to leave a legacy of kindness and loving one another,” she said in a statement, according to CNN. A private donor is helping bring the sculpture to fruition and it will take about a month to complete. There aren’t any details about where the sculpture will live after its finished, but it most likely will be in Houston.Scarpetta has been showing the progression of the sculpture on Instagram. “I couldn’t get her out of my head for a while now. When this happens, I usually have an out of body experience and have to sculpt it,” she posted. “Her tragedy should not have happened. All those that have babies have a massive responsibility to protect, love, and nurture our babies.” Twitter Finds Sweet Irony In Cops Complaining Arizona Starbucks Asked Them To Leave Houston-based artist Shirley Scarpetta is ensuring that the memory of Maleah Davis is kept alive. In honor of the four-year-old, whose body was discovered in Arkansas just over a month ago, Scarpetta is creating a bronze sculpture in her likeness, CNN reported. MALEAH DAVIS: Houston artist creates sculpture of 4-year-oldhttps://t.co/yY6DTWMRBd— ABC13 Houston (@abc13houston) June 29, 2019 A post shared by Shirley Scarpetta (@shirleyscarpettasculptor) on Jun 25, 2019 at 10:00pm PDT Starbucks Introduces New Line Of Iced Beverages View this post on Instagramlast_img read more

Historians expose early scientists debt to the slave trade

first_img The Netherlands James Delbourgo, Rutgers University CARIBBEAN ISLANDS France Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Email Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) There’s a tendency to think about the history of science in this—I don’t want to say triumphant, but—progressive way, that it’s always a force for good. We tend to forget the ways in which that isn’t the case. Bight of Benin When British slave ships arrived in Latin America, the crews had strict orders to stay at port and not poke around, mostly because Spain wanted to protect its monopoly on certain lucrative natural resources. But naturalists such as Petiver knew Spain had no way to enforce that rule—the territories had too little oversight. So they cultivated crew members to collect specimens on the sly.Murphy’s research shows Petiver employed mostly ship surgeons, who cared for slaves on the voyage across the ocean. The surgeons were scientifically educated, she says, and had plenty of free time at ports such as Cartagena, in modern Colombia, and Portobelo, in modern Panama, while their fellow crew members sold slaves and provisioned the ships. Petiver usually supplied recruits with kits that included jars for insects and brown paper for pressing plants. Compensation included books, medicines, and cash.Strikingly, some naturalists also instructed their contacts abroad to train slaves as collectors. Slaves often knew about specimens that Europeans didn’t and visited areas that Europeans wouldn’t. Those slaves virtually never got credit for their work, though Petiver did offer to pay them a half-crown ($18 today) for every dozen insects or 12 pence ($7) for every dozen plants.Petiver never collected overseas himself, but some scientists did, and they often found themselves in morally compromising positions. Henry Smeathman, an idealistic English naturalist, sailed for a slave colony in Sierra Leone in December 1771 and collected for the likes of Joseph Banks, an adviser to King George and longtime president of the Royal Society. Among other activities, Smeathman studied the massive termite mounds in western Africa, which stand up to 4 meters high. He had rollicking adventures breaking the mounds open and fending off attacks from angry, biting termite soldiers. Those connections aren’t just ancient history. Thousands of specimens collected through the slave trade still reside in places such as the Natural History Museum in London, and they’re still used in genetic and taxonomic research. Yet few people using the collections know of their origins.All of which casts an uncomfortable shadow on what’s often viewed as a heroic era in science. “We do not often think of the wretched, miserable, and inhuman spaces of slave ships as simultaneously being spaces of natural history,” Murphy writes in The William and Mary Quarterly. “Yet Petiver’s museum suggests that this is exactly what they were.”Compromises to gain access to distant landsSlavery is as old as civilization, but the transatlantic slave trade between the 1500s and 1800s was particularly brutal. Estimates vary, but at least 10 million Africans were enslaved, with roughly half dying on the way to slave ports or on voyages across the ocean. Statistics alone can’t capture the cruelty and squalor of slave ships, though. Men and women were chained up for weeks in hot, filthy holds, where diseases ran rampant and punishment for disobedience was harsh. Sharks reportedly followed ships on journeys, having learned that a slave or two would probably be tossed overboard—or commit suicide—at some point.Why did scientists align themselves with that horror? Access. European governments did sometimes sponsor scientific expeditions, but most ships visiting Africa and the Americas were private vessels engaged in the “triangular trade.” That three-way exchange sent guns and manufactured goods to Africa; slaves to the Americas; and dyes, drugs, and sugar back to Europe. To gain access to Africa and the Americas, scientists had to hitch rides on slave ships. Upon arrival, the naturalists also relied on slavers for food, shelter, mail, equipment, and local transport.France, Portugal, and the Netherlands captured and sold slaves, Murphy notes. But most historians studying science and slavery focus on Great Britain, which in the 1700s boasted the world’s biggest and most powerful fleets, had adventurous scientists and collectors, and was a major participant in the slave trade. Spain controlled most of South and Central America then, but it lacked colonies in Africa and therefore couldn’t import slaves directly. So it contracted that job out to various groups, including the British in the early 1700s, buying up to 4800 Africans per year. Portugal Britain 3 When people were traded like goods In the “triangular trade” of the 16th through 19th centuries, millions of people were shipped to the Americas as slaves, raw materials were transported to Europe, and manufactured goods went to Africa. The three-way trade provided European collectors access to specimens from Africa and the Americas. 2 Gold Coast As detailed in the 2018 book Henry Smeathman, the Flycatcher: Natural History, Slavery, and Empire in the Late Eighteenth Century, by historian Deirdre Coleman of the University of Melbourne in Australia, Smeathman began his journey as a foe of slavery, vowing to tell the truth about “those little-known and much misrepresented people, the Negroes.” And as a scientist, he considered himself superior to the ignorant, crude slavers he encountered in Sierra Leone. (For their part, the slavers thought him barmy for coming all the way to Africa to hunt for bugs and weeds.)But Smeathman was utterly dependent on those men for food, protection, and transportation. He also got lonely and started to socialize with them, playing whist and backgammon and even golf on a rugged, two-hole course on an offshore island. Soon he was hunting goats and enjoying grog-soaked feasts on the beach with the slavers. By 1774, he was working for a slaving company based in Liverpool because it greased the wheels for shipping specimens; he even started to trade slaves in exchange for supplies for his expeditions. Bit by bit, compromise by compromise, Smeathman became part of the system he once despised.Smeathman and others also relied on slavers to haul their precious specimens to Great Britain, packing them onto the same ships as enslaved Africans. (Few ships sailed straight back to Europe from Africa, so most specimens reached England via the Caribbean.) Perhaps not surprisingly, given how they treated their human cargo, the ships’ crews had a spotty record in caring for fragile bugs, plants, and animal skins. If the sunlight, heat, humidity, and saltwater didn’t destroy the specimens, the worms, ants, and rodents onboard usually did. Careless sailors might also smash the specimens by accident or for sport.Of the items that arrived safely in England, naturalists were most excited about exotic finds such as ostrich eggs, Goliath beetles, butterflies, sloths, and armadillos. But the real treasures, Murphy writes, were drugs such as cinchona bark, which contains quinine, and dyes such as deep-blue indigo and bright-red cochineal. The latter, which is extracted from beetles, was worth more per ounce than silver.Scientific studies of drugs and dyes often opened new opportunities for slave traders. Merchants eagerly sought natural resources to exploit abroad and consulted scientists about the best way to hunt for and cultivate them. Quinine and other drugs gleaned from tropical locales, Murphy notes, also helped Europeans survive there. And the safer and more profitable a colony was, the more its commercial activity, including slavery, thrived, creating new demand for slaves. Scientific research, then, not only depended on colonial slavery, but enabled it and helped expand its reach.The tainted origins of many cabinets of curiosityOf all the scientific fields, natural history benefited most from the slave trade, especially botany and entomology. One disciple of Linnaeus reported collecting three species new to science within 15 minutes on his first excursion in Sierra Leone. The bounty of plants astounded him.Doctors affiliated with slavery also collected human remains. “The trade in natural curiosities was widespread, and body parts were definitely part of that,” says Carolyn Roberts, a historian of science and assistant professor of African American studies at Yale University who’s writing a book about the slave trade and medicine. “Doctors would send things to Britain, especially if they had a case they found interesting.” Examples of interesting items included polyps cut from the hands of slaves, patches of dried skin, a fetus taken after a miscarriage, and, according to one old catalog, “stones extracted from the vagina of a negro African girle.”Those bugs and plants and bits of human beings often ended up in wealthy gentlemen’s “cabinets of curiosity,” jammed next to Roman coins and gems and whatever else tickled their fancy. Other specimens landed in universities or scholarly institutes. Guns, textiles Sierra Leone Milllion Some historians now refer to those private and institutional collections as the “big science” of their day. Scholars studied those centralized repositories and then circulated accounts of their research to other scientists. Linnaeus drew on such accounts when putting together Systema Naturae in 1735, the book that introduced his famous binomial naming system for flora and fauna.A few physical sciences also piggybacked on the slave trade. Slave labor built the first major observatory in the Southern Hemisphere, in Cape Town, South Africa. Astronomers such as Edmond Halley solicited observations of the moon and stars from slave ports, and geologists collected rocks and minerals there.Even a field as rarefied as celestial mechanics benefited from slavery. When developing his theory of gravity, Newton studied ocean tides, knowing that the gravitational tug of the moon causes them. Newton needed tide readings from all over the globe, and one crucial set of readings came from French slave ports in Martinique. Delbourgo says, “Newton himself, who’s really the paradigm figure of an isolated, nontraveling, sitting-at-his-desk genius, had access to numbers he wouldn’t have had access to without the Atlantic slave trade.”Museums grapple with the pastMany natural history specimens with ties to the slave trade eventually ended up in museums. When Petiver died in 1718, a fellow naturalist in London named Hans Sloane snapped up his collection. Sloane had collected on slave plantations in Jamaica, and he married into a slaving family whose money enabled more collecting. In 1727, he succeeded Newton as president of the Royal Society (which itself invested in slaving companies).When Sloane died in 1753, he willed his collection, including Petiver’s goods, to the British government, and it became the foundation of the British Museum in London. The museum later split into several entities. Many of Sloane’s specimens went to the Natural History Museum, where they remain today. Specimens collected through the slave trade also ended up at the Oxford University Herbaria, Royal Society, and Chelsea Physic Garden, among other places, Murphy reports.Representatives for those institutes say it’s difficult to put numbers on how many of their specimens have ties to slavery. In some cases, they haven’t gone through and digitized the records yet, and many old specimens have vague or fragmentary records anyway, making their provenance obscure. But documents from the 18th and 19th centuries attest to thousands upon thousands of items pouring into Europe. Smeathman alone sent 600 species of plants and 710 species of insects back to England, often with several individuals per species. (One of Smeathman’s patrons complained about the glut of bugs, writing that Smeathman had sent too many to unpack: “My House could not possibly contain one half.”) And although many old specimens have either disintegrated or been lost, at least some with ties to slavery probably survive in almost every institute in Europe with natural history collections dating back a few centuries. Africans shipped to America Spain West central Africa NHM IMAGES Windward Coast Colonizing nations AFRICA Sugar, molasses Southeast Africa 1 James Delbourgo, a historian at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, who has written extensively about slavery and science, agrees. He argues that the belief in the progressive nature of science has made historians reluctant to take a critical look at its past. “This is a hard story for us to deal with,” he says. He adds that academic specialization also prevented many people from seeing what, in retrospect, seem like obvious connections: “Slave trade historians don’t know about science, and vice versa.” Those collections aren’t just antiquarian curiosities. Scientists still consult them to construct phylogenies and do taxonomic work: Many of the collections contain type specimens, the first described individual of a species against which all other individuals are compared. The collections are also invaluable for studying plant domestication, historic climate change, and shifts in geographical distributions of species. Scientists have even extracted DNA from specimens to study how plants and animals have evolved across the centuries.Most scientists, however, remain unaware of the origins of the collections. “Very few people think about how [specimens] were collected, whether they were collected through slave trade routes or otherwise,” says Stephen Harris, a curator at the Oxford University Herbaria, which houses some of Sloane’s goods. “They’re simply data points.”In an email, Mark Carine, a curator at the Natural History Museum, noted that institutions such as his have a broader role than just preserving specimens. “As curators, we have a responsibility not only to care for our collections and make them available for research but also to facilitate an understanding of their significance and relevance today.” He adds that Sloane’s collection “is not simply a biological record; it is also a resource for understanding the social and historical context within which science developed, and we are certainly keen to continue working with researchers across disciplines to better understand this.”Still, Murphy and Delbourgo say that even some curators are oblivious to the histories of their collections, and Murphy encountered one who dismissed her work outright. Delbourgo emphasizes that his historical research “isn’t an attack on museums” and that he knows museum staff are often “under-resourced and overworked.” But, he adds, “Museums have been bad” about acknowledging the dubious origins of many items. “They have dragged their feet enormously.”Now that the link between early science and slavery has come to light, an important question remains: What should scientists do about it?Historians say acknowledgment is a start: In research papers, scientists should mention how specimens were gathered. Taking the origin of specimens into account can also improve the research itself, especially given the paucity of collecting records in some cases. For example, Murphy mentions that the slave trade can help explain the geographic distributions of certain specimens. African plants, for instance, wouldn’t have been collected from all over the continent, but from specific points along the coast—the ports where countries were shipping slaves.”From a scientific point of view, your specimen is essentially a piece of evidence,” Harris adds, “and the more you know about the provenance of that piece of evidence and the better understanding you have … the better you can use it within your analyses.”The connections between science and the slave trade could also feed into ongoing debates about reparations and the historical legacies of slavery. Like some U.K. organizations, U.S. universities such as Yale, Georgetown, and Brown have acknowledged how they benefited from slavery. For the most part, Murphy says, those conversations are framed “in terms of just dollars and cents, pounds and pence. Yet [the profits] can also clearly be measured in specimens collected and papers published.”Overall, she says, “Modern science and the transatlantic slave trade were two of the most important factors in the shaping of the modern world.” Historians are finally recognizing that they shaped each other as well. As Delbourgo says, “We’ve been so negligent in bringing these histories [of slavery and science] together. We’ve missed that they are in fact the same history.” Bight of Biafra SOUTH AMERICA NORTH AMERICA EUROPE Historians expose early scientists’ debt to the slave trade At the dawn of the 1700s, European science seemed poised to conquer all of nature. Isaac Newton had recently published his monumental theory of gravity. Telescopes were opening up the heavens to study, and Robert Hooke and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes were doing the same for the miniature world. Fantastic new plants and animals were pouring in from Asia and the Americas. But one of the most important scientists alive then was someone few people have ever heard of, an apothecary and naturalist named James Petiver. And he was important for a startling reason: He had good connections within the slave trade.Although he rarely left London, Petiver ran a global network of dozens of ship surgeons and captains who collected animal and plant specimens for him in far-flung colonies. Petiver set up a museum and research center with those specimens, and he and visiting scientists wrote papers that other naturalists (including Carl Linnaeus, the father of taxonomy) drew on. Between one-quarter and one-third of Petiver’s collectors worked in the slave trade, largely because he had no other options: Few ships outside the slave trade traveled to key points in Africa and Latin America. Petiver eventually amassed the largest natural history collection in the world, and it never would have happened without slavery.Petiver wasn’t unique. By examining scientific papers, correspondence between naturalists, and the records of slaving companies, historians are now seeing new connections between science and slavery and piecing together just how deeply intertwined they were. “The biggest surprise is, for a topic that has been ignored for so long, how much there was once I started digging,” says Kathleen Murphy, a science historian at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo who’s writing a book about the topic. She adds, “There’s a tendency to think about the history of science in this—I don’t want to say triumphant, but—progressive way, that it’s always a force for good. We tend to forget the ways in which that isn’t the case.” (MAP) AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE, 1500–1870/PEARSON EDUCATION, INC., ADAPTED BY N. DESAI/SCIENCE; (DATA) TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE DATABASE/EMORY CENTER FOR DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP Tobacco, rice, cotton Newton himself, who’s really the paradigm figure of an isolated, nontraveling, sitting-at-his-desk genius, had access to numbers he wouldn’t have had access to without the Atlantic slave trade. THE JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY AT BROWN UNIVERSITY Senegambia In addition to his own collecting, Hans Sloane (pictured) bought up the collections of other naturalists, many of whom used slave ships to reach far-flung places. When Sloane died in 1753, his specimens became the founding collection of the British Museum. They later ended up in London’s Natural History Museum. By Sam KeanApr. 4, 2019 , 10:00 AM Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country European scientists in South America often relied on black or native people to collect for them. In an illustration from 1806, three Africans in Suriname kill and flay a gigantic snake while a European scientist stands back and directs. Trade routes Kathleen Murphy, California Polytechnic State University last_img read more